The structures and securing methods of the present tailings correspond to practices and technical capabilities that were common at the time of their construction and do not comply with today’s requirements for the security of deposition sites. In particular, a problem is posed by harmful materials leaching into the subsoil, the groundwater and the Elbe River (up to 45.5 kg of manganese, 37.6 kg of iron and 234 kg of sulphur daily) and by the material being carried away by wind and water erosion. At present, it is forbidden to enter the tailings pile area.
An important task of our project is to reclaim the existing area and replace the inappropriate technical design of the tailings pile area with modern methods for securing the deposited material.
MANGAN Chvaletice’s project consists in the recycling of mining waste and in the rehabilitation and reclamation of the tailings pile area. We are legally required to create a reserve fund for the reclamation work (Act No. 44/1988 Coll. on the protection and utilization of mineral resources).
The purpose of reclamation is to stop contamination and to create conditions that will lead to the creation or enhancement of the ecological, aesthetic and landscaping functions of the locality. We will create an area close to nature, with high biological diversity and stability, but which can also be potentially used for recreational and sports activities.
Simple superficial removal of the old mining waste is envisaged. The process will be gradual and is planned for a period of approximately 25 years.
The reclamation and rehabilitation work will be done on a continuous basis, starting at the time of waste material removal from the tailings pile area. The basic reclamation and rehabilitation will consist in re-deposition of the material from the manganese ore treatment, ensuring the security and stability of the newly modelled terrain, and undertaking biological rehabilitation.
The materials, after having been neutralized and stabilized, will be gradually stacked in a prepared and secured area. Subsequently, the materials will be covered with an upper isolation layer and covering soil, and vegetation will be seeded or planted. Based on the method of raw material removal it is expected that the volume of the new dry-stacking piles will be approximately the same as the volume of the existing tailings.
Where it is not technically feasible, reclamation and rehabilitation will only be done in the final phase. Work to remove the structures and buildings or their parts will be done in the final phase of the raw material removal. Unused roads and utility lines will also be removed.
The dry-stacking piles will be secured using methods meeting the current technical standards and requirements for environmental protection.
The dry-stacking piles will be isolated and gravity drained into the natural micro-basin with a central retention zone, a dry polder. On the west side, the polder will be confined by a dam and a safety spillway that will ensure safe removal of excess water.
The proposed reclamation and rehabilitation will ensure accumulation of rainfall in shallow depressions in the terrain and will thus support the development of wetland communities. The newly built, more rugged terrain will contribute to the diversification of the habitat conditions, and combined with subsequent biological rehabilitation (grassy herbaceous areas, forest, scattered greenery), it will contribute to greater biodiversity in the area. The proposal respects the suggested measures to minimize any impacts on the fauna, flora and ecosystems, as well as the requirements of affected municipalities, the public and the responsible authorities.
Biologically diverse habitats will be formed as a result of rehabilitation:
Areas of herbaceous plant communities
Areas where herbaceous plant communities will be established, where the species will correspond to a mixture for oak woods on sandy plains and/or fir and elm woods.
Continuous planting of woody plants
It is envisaged to create a diffuse, park-like planting of woody plants. The plants will be planted in groups and also as solitary individuals resulting in a coverage rate of approx. 80%.
Brush and diffuse plants
Areas to be covered by grass, with diffuse and group planting of woody plants covering approx. 20% of the area.
Successional areas without humic substrate
Loamy-sand islets left for natural development.
This area, intended to receive water from the micro-basin of the dry-stacking piles, will be covered by grass with some depressions, with the periodic presence of water allowing the development of wetland communities.
This is a strip of land on the west side of the area of interest. No extraction or other work will be performed here, but we are planning to include it in the overall concept of the rehabilitated area using the existing vegetation. The aim is to create diffuse forest vegetation suitable for the movement of people.
The entire area will be designed as an open landscape without any obstacles so that people can walk freely off the paths, for example, when walking their dogs, mushrooming, etc. It will not be a closed area; instead, its edges will flow seamlessly into the neighbouring landscape.
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